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Title Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations
Author Richard Frankham
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release 2017-07-04
Category Science
Total Pages 528
ISBN 0191086061
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

One of the greatest unmet challenges in conservation biology is the genetic management of fragmented populations of threatened animal and plant species. More than a million small, isolated, population fragments of threatened species are likely suffering inbreeding depression and loss of evolutionary potential, resulting in elevated extinction risks. Although these effects can often be reversed by re-establishing gene flow between population fragments, managers very rarely do this. On the contrary, genetic methods are used mainly to document genetic differentiation among populations, with most studies concluding that genetically differentiated populations should be managed separately, thereby isolating them yet further and dooming many to eventual extinction! Many small population fragments are going extinct principally for genetic reasons. Although the rapidly advancing field of molecular genetics is continually providing new tools to measure the extent of population fragmentation and its genetic consequences, adequate guidance on how to use these data for effective conservation is still lacking. This accessible, authoritative text is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students interested in conservation biology, conservation genetics, and wildlife management. It will also be of particular relevance to conservation practitioners and natural resource managers, as well as a broader academic audience of conservation biologists and evolutionary ecologists.

Title A Practical Guide for Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations
Author Richard Frankham
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release 2019-10-23
Category Science
Total Pages 272
ISBN 0191086088
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The habitats of most species have been fragmented by human actions, isolating small populations that consequently develop genetic problems. Millions of small, isolated, fragmented populations are likely suffering from inbreeding depression and loss of genetic diversity, greatly increasing their risk of extinction. Crossing between populations is required to reverse these effects, but managers rarely do so. A key reason for such inaction is that managers are often advised to manage populations in isolation whenever molecular genetic methods indicate genetic differences among them. Following this advice will often doom small populations to extinction when the habitat fragmentation and genetic differences were caused by human activities. A paradigm shift is required whereby evidence of genetic differentiation among populations is a trigger to ask whether any populations are suffering genetic problems, and if so, whether they can be rescued by augmenting gene flow. Consequently, there is now an urgent need for an authoritative practical guide to facilitate this paradigm shift in genetic management of fragmented populations.

Title Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations
Author Richard Frankham
Publisher
Release 2017
Category SCIENCE
Total Pages 401
ISBN 9780191826313
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

One of the greatest unmet issues in conservation biology is the genetic management of fragmented populations of numerous animal and plant species. Many populations are going extinct unnecessarily for genetic reasons so there is now urgent need for an authoritative textbook on the rational genetic management of fragmented populations.

Title A Practical Guide for Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations
Author Richard Frankham
Publisher
Release 2019
Category Fragmented landscapes
Total Pages
ISBN 9780191826337
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"The biological diversity of the planet is being rapidly depleted due to the direct and indirect consequences of human activity. As the size of wild animal and plant populations decreases and fragmentation increases, inbreeding reduces fitness and loss of genetic diversity reduces their ability to adapt to changes in the environment. Many small isolated populations are going extinct unnecessarily. In many cases, such populations can be genetically rescued by gene flow from another population within the species, but this is very rarely done. This book provides a practical guide to the genetic management of fragmented animal and plant populations"--

Title Genetics Demography and Viability of Fragmented Populations
Author Andrew G. Young
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Release 2000-10-12
Category Nature
Total Pages 460
ISBN 9780521782074
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Habitat fragmentation is one of the most ubiquitous and serious environmental threats confronting the long-term survival of plant and animal species worldwide. As species become restricted to remnant habitats, effective management for long-term conservation requires a quantitative understanding of the genetic and demographic effects of habitat fragmentation, and the implications for population viability. This book provides a detailed introduction to the genetic and demographic issues relevant to the conservation of fragmented populations such as demographic stochasticity, genetic erosion, inbreeding, metapopulation biology, and population viability analysis. The volume presents case studies on animals and plants, which illustrate a variety of approaches to examining long-term population viability. Some of the approaches include the application of molecular genetic markers, the investigation of reproductive biology, and the combination of demographic monitoring and modeling.

Title Cheetahs Biology and Conservation
Author
Publisher Academic Press
Release 2017-11-28
Category Science
Total Pages 596
ISBN 012804120X
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation reports on the science and conservation of the cheetah. This volume demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of research and conservation efforts to study and protect the cheetah. The book begins with chapters on the evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology and behavior of the species, as well as distribution reports from range countries. These introductory chapters lead into discussions of the challenges facing cheetah survival, including habitat loss, declining prey base, human-wildlife conflict, illegal trade, and newly-emerging threats, notably climate change. This book also focuses on conservation strategies and solutions, including environmental education and alternative livelihoods. Chapters on the role of captive cheetahs to conservation and the long-term research of the species are included, as are a brief discussion of the methods and analyses used to study the cheetah. The book concludes with the conservation status and future outlook of the species. Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation is a valuable resource for the regional and global communities of cheetah conservationists, researchers, and academics. Although cheetah focussed the book provides information relevant to the study of broader topics such as wildlife conservation, captive breeding, habitat management, conservation biology and animal behaviour. Cover photograph by Angela Scott Includes chapters by the world’s leading cheetah researchers and practitioners, who have focused their efforts on this high-profile species of conservation concern Provides findings as a combination of scientific detail and basic explanations so that they can be available not only to cheetah researchers and conservationists, but also to policy makers, business leaders, zoo managers, academics, students, and people interested in the cheetah and its future Presents the current knowledge of the species, helping lay the foundations and best practices for cheetah conservation and research worldwide Additional protocols and forms (which were provided by authors) can be found at the Cheetahs: Biology and Conservation companion site: https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/book-companion/9780128040881

Paleogenomics by Charlotte Lindqvist

Title Paleogenomics
Author Charlotte Lindqvist
Publisher Springer
Release 2019-01-07
Category Science
Total Pages 427
ISBN 3030047539
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Advances in genome-scale DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized genetic research on ancient organisms, extinct species, and past environments. When it is recoverable after hundreds or thousands of years of unintended preservation, “ancient DNA” (or aDNA) is often highly degraded, necessitating specialized handling and analytical approaches. Paleogenomics defines the field of reconstructing and analyzing the genomes of historic or long-dead organisms, most often through comparison with modern representatives of the same or similar species. The opportunity to isolate and study paleogenomes has radically transformed many fields, spanning biology, anthropology, agriculture, and medicine. Examples include understanding evolutionary relationships of extinct species known only from fossils, the domestication of plants and animals, and the evolution and geographical spread of certain pathogens. This pioneering book presents a snapshot view of the history, current status, and future prospects of paleogenomics, taking a broad viewpoint that covers a range of topics and organisms to provide an up-to-date status of the applications, challenges, and promise of the field. This book is intended for a variety of readerships, including upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, professionals and experts in the field, as well as anyone excited by the extraordinary insights that paleogenomics offers.

Wildlife Disease Ecology by Kenneth Wilson

Title Wildlife Disease Ecology
Author Kenneth Wilson
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Release 2019-11-30
Category Mathematics
Total Pages 500
ISBN 1107136563
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Introduces readers to key case studies that illustrate how theory and data can be integrated to understand wildlife disease ecology.

Title Genetics Demography and Viability of Fragmented Populations
Author Andrew G. Young
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Release 2000-10-12
Category Nature
Total Pages 438
ISBN 9780521794213
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A detailed introduction to the genetic and demographic issues relevant to the conservation of fragmented populations.

Title Conservation Genetics of Kincaid s Lupine
Author Paul M. Severns
Publisher
Release 2010
Category Endangered plants
Total Pages 230
ISBN
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus oreganus Heller) is a federally listed threatened species native to remnant grassland of western Oregon and southwestern Washington, and is the primary larval host plant of a once thought extinct butterfly, Plebejus icarioides fenderi Macy. Past studies concerning Kincaid's lupine reproduction suggested that populations may suffer reductions in fitness and progeny vigor due to inbreeding depression, but no direct investigation into range-wide patterns of genetic variation has been undertaken. I used nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to determine genet size and patterns of non-adventitious rhizomatous lupine spread, to estimate the number of genets within Kincaid's lupine populations, and to assess whether seed transfer for the purpose of genetic rescue is an appropriate genetics management strategy for Kincaid's lupine. Patterns of allelic diversity at nDNA SSR loci within study patches revealed that non-adventitious spread of rhizomes can extend to at least 27 m and may dominate a portion of a lupine patch or small population. However, genet spread and arrangement in study patches were sufficiently integrated such that interplantlet Bombus foraging flights exceeding 2 m had > 90% probability of occurring between different genets. Within-lupine patch genetic diversity was well-undersampled, refuting the supposition that Kincaid's lupine populations suffer from inbreeding depression due to small effective population sizes. Estimation of Kincaid's lupine abundance through leaf cover and inflorescence number was tightly correlated with plantlet number, a unit of vegetative and sexual growth, within lupine patches but the relationship was not consistent between patches within populations or between populations. We used genet to plantlet ratios (determined through genotyping) and plantlet density to estimate genet population size in Kincaid's lupine patches. Because of the strong correlation between cover and plantlet density, historically collected lupine abundance data could be used to estimate genet population size provided that plantlet density is calibrated to patch-specific cover measurements. Within patches and populations across the range of Kincaid's lupine there was little DNA evidence suggesting severe inbreeding. Only one of 24 populations and five study patches had strong statistical evidence of a recent genetic bottleneck despite the range-wide fragmentation of lupine populations and habitat. Mean population fixation index values for nearly half of the populations were near Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations and only one small lupine population had a F-value > 0.20, suggestive of high inbreeding levels. Half of the populations actually had an excess of heterozygotes, suggesting that genetic diversity is not being lost. Chloroplast DNA coincides well with the observation that genetic diversity is not being lost through inbreeding or genetic bottlenecking in Kincaid's lupine. The mean number of cpDNA haplotypes per population was approximately 4 maternal lineages, which is very high for an animal pollinated plant with heavy seeds that have limited dispersal. Even relatively small populations of Kincaid's lupine had 2 or more cpDNA haplotypes, indicating that populations are not severely inbred. Both nuclear and chloroplast DNA SSR genetic marker diversity suggests that Kincaid's lupine does not require genetic rescue for effective conservation. Due to the longevity of Kincaid's lupine and the apparently large amount of within population genetic diversity, the encouragement of natural recruitment from vegetation management that improves habitat conditions is likely to maintain the relatively large amount of genetic diversity within Kincaid's lupine populations.

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