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Title Mechanical Production of Nanoparticles in Stirred Media Mills
Author
Publisher Cuvillier Verlag
Release 2007-06-13
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 210
ISBN 3736922558
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Nanotechnology applications in the pharmaceutical, materials, and chemical industries has renewed interest in the use of wet grinding in stirred media mills for the production of nanoparticles with controlled microstructure. Quite recently it is possible to mill particles down to the size range of 10 nm. However, challenges arise in the production of sub-micron particles that are, in part, due to colloidal surface forces influencing slurry stability and rheology. In this work experiments are performed on a well characterized model system of monodisperse primary nanoparticles that are salt destabilized and aggregated under various milling conditions. Perikinetic and orthokinetic aggregation are measured, with the latter in a laminar shear flow as well as in a stirred media mill, to examine the effects of colloidal stability and flow on the aggregation process. The agglomeration kinetics are measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a function of electrolyte concentrations. Further information on the agglomeration process and the structure of the agglomerates are also obtained from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rheo-optical light scattering (ROA) experiments both at rest and under flow. Theoretical predictions for the colloidal stability from independently measured particle and solution properties compare well with the experimental results. Orthokinetic aggregation is observed to result in faster aggregation and denser agglomerates. Because of the high industrial demand for nanoparticles in organic media the study was extended to non-aqueous systems. Electrostatic stabilization requires a sufficiently high surface charge leading to a steeply decaying surface potential. These conditions can be met by solvents of medium dielectric constant (i.e. values larger than about 15-20), e.g. alcohols. In these media the particles may carry a high surface charge and the solubility of salts will be sufficient to enable a high repulsive barrier. It is shown that stable suspensions with high ζ-potentials can be achieved for alumina in ethanol with elecrostatic stabilization. Milling studies with electrostatic stabilization showed that the size of the primary particles is conspicuously smaller than the size of the particles milled under the same conditions in the aqueous phase. However, the media wear has a negative influence on the stability of the suspension since the ionic strengths in organic solvents are much lower. Milling experiments with steric stabilization in organic solvents produced larger primary particle sizes than with electrostatic conditions. The polymer layer around the particles seems to adsorb part of the grinding energy during the impact of two grinding beads and cushions the comminution. However, media wear has in contrast to the electrostatic stabilized particles in organic solvents no influence on the stability of the suspension. An important question is whether the mechano-chemical activation which was observed in aqueous media is crucial to obtain nanoparticles. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed no mechano-chemical changes during milling in ethanol and toluene. In the aqueous phase the stabilization mechanism has no influence on the amount of hydroxide phase. A protecting polymer cover around the particles does not prevent the mechano-chemical changes.

Shakespeare Not Stirred by Caroline Bicks

Title Shakespeare Not Stirred
Author Caroline Bicks
Publisher Penguin
Release 2015-09-01
Category Cooking
Total Pages 160
ISBN 0698183967
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In Shakespeare, Not Stirred, two professors mix equal parts booze and Bard to help you through your everyday dramas. It’s like having Shakespeare right there in your living room, downing a great drink and putting your crappy day in perspective. So get out your cocktail shaker and lend him your ears. Each original cocktail and hors d’oeuvre recipe connects Shakespeare’s characters to life’s daily predicaments: • Drown your sorrows after a workplace betrayal with Othello’s Green-Eyed Monster • Distract yourself from domestic drama with Kate’s Shrew-driver or Cleopatra’s Flings in a Blanket • Recapture your youth with Puck’s Magic ’Shrooms • Mark a romantic occasion with Beatrice and Benedick’s Much Ado About Frothing Featuring classic images from the Folger Shakespeare Library (hilariously doctored to feature some hard-partying Shakespearean protagonists) and Mini-Bards you can raid for extra context and commentary, Shakespeare, Not Stirred is a completely intoxicating experience.

Shaken and Stirred by William L. Hamilton

Title Shaken and Stirred
Author William L. Hamilton
Publisher Zondervan
Release 2009-03-17
Category Cooking
Total Pages 240
ISBN 006187339X
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

William L. Hamilton loves a good gimlet. Rose's and lime. Straight up. Perfectly iced. Make the glass pretty too. "It ruined my reputation for thinking before I speak," he writes of that love. "I accept the trade-off." Like Lewis Carroll's Alice, when Hamilton sees it, he drinks it -- and tells the incredible tale. In "Shaken and Stirred," his biweekly Sunday Styles column, now an original book of his drinking adventures, the intrepid New York Times reporter offers a gimlet-eyed look at contemporary culture through the panoptic view of a cocktail glass. From the venerable martini to the young Dirty Jane, Hamilton shares his tip on the sip. You hold in your hands a guide to "how it goes down." Not a cocktail manual or a Baedeker to the bar scene but a drinker's guide to drinking. These are four-ounce adventures of cocktails and the people who make them, from the bartenders and chefs to the patrons, the politicians and the power players of the liquor industry. There are tales of the Champagne high life, the Long Island Iced Tea low life; men like Dr. Brown and his celery soda, and women like Eve and her Apple Martini. Hamilton's weekly Runyanesque rounds cover all the watering holes and their poisons, from the East Side's Southside to the Incredible Hulk in the Bronx, and monitors the latest trends, from the ultra-premium vodka wars to the Red Bull market. Shaken and Stirred is a report on a popular culture that comes alive after five, when the mood turns social and the moment is sweet (or sour, or bitter, or dry). Hamilton has also picked up the best (or the most unbelievable) cocktail recipes from bars, lounges and restaurants in New York City and beyond. There is common sense and creativity in the classics, and new inventions with their eye on the prize, such as the Huckleberry Ginn and the Bleeding Heart."drink me," said the bottle in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Hamilton has, in every instance, and bottled his thoughts in sixty-four essays that are as readable as they are drinkable. Mix a gimlet, or a Minnesota Anti-Freeze, or a Gibson or a Bone. And spend a night in, on the town.

Title Numerical Characterization of Mechanical Stress and Flow Patterns in Stirred Tank Bioreactors
Author Manely Eslahpazir Esfandabadi
Publisher Cuvillier Verlag
Release 2013-06-24
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 146
ISBN 3736944497
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Das Ziel der Arbeit bestand darin, die lokalen und globalen mechanischen Beanspruchungsparameter in einem Rührkesselbioreaktor mit Hilfe der numerischen Strömungssimulation (CFD) nachzubilden und die Ergebnisse mit experimentellen Daten der Pellet-kultivierung bzgl. Fluiddynamik und Rheolgie des rekombinanten Stammes A. niger SKAn1015 zu validieren. Ausgehend von der einphasigen Strömungssimulation eines 2L-Bioreaktors werden zunächst Simultionsdaten über Strömungsgeschwindigkeit und mechanische Beanspruchung diskutiert. Aßerdem erfolgt eine Validierung der einphasigen Simulationsdaten mit der Particle Image Velocimetry. In weiteren Untersuchungen wird die Strömungssimulation auch auf nicht-newtonsche Flüssigkeiten, so wie sie bei der Kultivierung filamentöser Pilze üblicherweise auftreten, mit dem Ostwald - de Waele-Ansatz erweitert und die mechanische Beanspruchung in Abhängigkeit zu den rheologischen Prozessparametern korreliert. Die Untersuchung des Einflusses unterschiedlicher Rührergeometrien auf die Strömungsfelder und die mechanische Beanspruchung mittels CFD bildet den Abschluss, so dass die Auswahl eines geeigneten Rührers für den Kultivierungsprozess mit schesensitiven biologischen Systemen eindeutig getroffen wird. Die Arbeit validiert die numerische Strömungssimulation in einem Bioreaktor mit experimentell gnerierten biologischen und fluiddynamischen Prozessdaten und gibt praktische Hinweise darüber, wie biotechnologische Prozesse mit filamentösen Mikroorganismen hinsichtlich der Minimierung der mechanischen Beanspruchung zu betreiben sind.

Title Mode stirred Method Implementation for HIRF Susceptibility Testing and Results Comparison with Anechoic Method
Author Truong X. Nguyen
Publisher
Release 2001
Category Anechoic chambers
Total Pages 16
ISBN
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This paper describes the implementation of mode-stirred method for susceptibility testing according to the current DO-160D standard. Test results on an Engine Data Processor using the implemented procedure and the comparisons with the standard anechoic test results are presented. The comparison experimentally shows that the susceptibility thresholds found in mode-stirred method are consistently higher than anechoic. This is consistent with the recent statistical analysis finding by NIST that the current calibration procedure overstates field strength by a fixed amount. Once the test results are adjusted for this value, the comparisons with the anechoic results are excellent. The results also show that etst method has excellent chamber to chamber repeatability. Several areas for improvements to the current procedure are also identiified and implemented.

Shakers Re stirred by John Godber

Title Shakers Re stirred
Author John Godber
Publisher Chappell Plays
Release 1993
Category English drama
Total Pages 93
ISBN
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Title Modeling of Enzyme Degradation in Stirred Tanks
Author Michael Douglas Waite
Publisher
Release 1981
Category Biochemical engineering
Total Pages 150
ISBN
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary: