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Understanding Working Memory by Tracy Packiam Alloway

Title Understanding Working Memory
Author Tracy Packiam Alloway
Publisher SAGE
Release 2014-10-27
Category Education
Total Pages 168
ISBN 1473909309
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

It is hard to conceive of a classroom activity that does not involve working memory – our ability to work with information. In fact, it would be impossible for students to learn without working memory. From following instructions to reading a sentence, from sounding out an unfamiliar word to calculating a math problem, nearly everything a student does in the classroom requires working with information. Even when a student is asked to do something simple, like take out their science book and open it to page 289, they have to use their working memory. Most children have a working memory that is strong enough to quickly find the book and open to the correct page, but some don’t – approximately 10% in any classroom. A student who loses focus and often daydreams may fall in this 10%. A student who isn’t living up to their potential may fall in this 10%. A student who may seem unmotivated may fall in this 10%. In the past, many of these students would have languished at the bottom of the class, because their problems seemed insurmountable and a standard remedy like extra tuition didn’t solve them. But emerging evidence shows that many of these children can improve their performance by focusing on their working memory. Working memory is a foundational skill in the classroom and when properly supported it can often turn around a struggling student’s prospects. This book will make sure you are able to spot problems early, work with children to improve their working memory and ensure they reach their full potential. How does the book work? Each of the following chapters includes a description of the learning difficulty (WHAT), followed by an inside look into the brain of a student with the disorder (WHERE), their unique working memory profile (WHY), and classroom strategies to support working memory (HOW). There are two types of strategies: general working memory strategies that can be applied to all students in your class, and specific working memory strategies for each learning difficulty. The final chapter (Chapter 9) provides the student with tools to empower them along their learning journey. The aim in supporting students with learning difficulties is not just to help them survive in the classroom, but to thrive as well. The strategies in the book can provide scaffolding and support that will unlock their working memory potential to boost learning. They are designed to be easily integrated within the classroom setting as a dimension of an inclusive curriculum and used in developing an individualized education program (IEP) for the student. The strategies recommended here can also complement existing programs that support a core deficit, such as a social skills program for a student with autistic spectrum disorder, or behavior modification for those with ADHD. Each chapter also includes: Try It box: Provides the reader with an opportunity to have a hands-on understanding of the material Science Flash box: Gives the reader a snapshot of current and interesting research related to each chapter Current Debate box: Discusses a controversial issue pertaining to the disorder What's new to this edition? Watch this video Tracy Packiam Alloway is an award-winning psychologist based at the University of North Florida Ross Alloway is the CEO of Memosyne Ltd, a company that brings cutting-edge scientific research to parents.

Working Memory and Learning by Susan Gathercole

Title Working Memory and Learning
Author Susan Gathercole
Publisher SAGE Publications Limited
Release 2008-01-30
Category Education
Total Pages 144
ISBN 9781412936132
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A good working memory is crucial to becoming a successful leaner, yet there is very little material available in an easy-to-use format that explains the concept and offers practitioners ways to support children with poor working memory in the classroom. This book provides a coherent overview of the role played by working memory in learning during the school years, and uses theory to inform good practice. Topics covered include: " the link between working memory skills and key areas of learning (such as literacy & numeracy) " the relationship between working memory and children with developmental disorders " assessment of children for working memory deficits " strategies for supporting working memory in under-performing children This accessible guide will help SENCOs, teachers, teaching assistants, speech and language therapists and educational psychologists to understand and address working memory in their setting

Understanding Working Memory by Tracy Packiam Alloway

Title Understanding Working Memory
Author Tracy Packiam Alloway
Publisher SAGE
Release 2014-10-27
Category Education
Total Pages 168
ISBN 1473909295
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

It is hard to conceive of a classroom activity that does not involve working memory – our ability to work with information. In fact, it would be impossible for students to learn without working memory. From following instructions to reading a sentence, from sounding out an unfamiliar word to calculating a math problem, nearly everything a student does in the classroom requires working with information. Even when a student is asked to do something simple, like take out their science book and open it to page 289, they have to use their working memory. Most children have a working memory that is strong enough to quickly find the book and open to the correct page, but some don’t – approximately 10% in any classroom. A student who loses focus and often daydreams may fall in this 10%. A student who isn’t living up to their potential may fall in this 10%. A student who may seem unmotivated may fall in this 10%. In the past, many of these students would have languished at the bottom of the class, because their problems seemed insurmountable and a standard remedy like extra tuition didn’t solve them. But emerging evidence shows that many of these children can improve their performance by focusing on their working memory. Working memory is a foundational skill in the classroom and when properly supported it can often turn around a struggling student’s prospects. This book will make sure you are able to spot problems early, work with children to improve their working memory and ensure they reach their full potential. How does the book work? Each of the following chapters includes a description of the learning difficulty (WHAT), followed by an inside look into the brain of a student with the disorder (WHERE), their unique working memory profile (WHY), and classroom strategies to support working memory (HOW). There are two types of strategies: general working memory strategies that can be applied to all students in your class, and specific working memory strategies for each learning difficulty. The final chapter (Chapter 9) provides the student with tools to empower them along their learning journey. The aim in supporting students with learning difficulties is not just to help them survive in the classroom, but to thrive as well. The strategies in the book can provide scaffolding and support that will unlock their working memory potential to boost learning. They are designed to be easily integrated within the classroom setting as a dimension of an inclusive curriculum and used in developing an individualized education program (IEP) for the student. The strategies recommended here can also complement existing programs that support a core deficit, such as a social skills program for a student with autistic spectrum disorder, or behavior modification for those with ADHD. Each chapter also includes: Try It box: Provides the reader with an opportunity to have a hands-on understanding of the material Science Flash box: Gives the reader a snapshot of current and interesting research related to each chapter Current Debate box: Discusses a controversial issue pertaining to the disorder What's new to this edition? Watch this video Tracy Packiam Alloway is an award-winning psychologist based at the University of North Florida Ross Alloway is the CEO of Memosyne Ltd, a company that brings cutting-edge scientific research to parents.

Title Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention
Author Milton J. Dehn
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Release 2015-08-31
Category Psychology
Total Pages 316
ISBN 1118638131
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Working memory deficits are the main reason why students with disabilities are unable to successfully respond to regular education interventions. Given the strong relationship between working memory and all areas of academic learning, a deeper understanding of working memory and the related assessments and interventions can facilitate greater achievement. This book helps readers: understand the development and neuroanatomy of working memory; learn techniques for improving it in the classroom; examine strategies for brain-based working memory training; and effectively utilise working memory assessment measures. A companion CD-ROM features worksheets, testing charts and other useful resources

Improving Working Memory by Tracy Packiam Alloway

Title Improving Working Memory
Author Tracy Packiam Alloway
Publisher SAGE
Release 2010-11-17
Category Education
Total Pages 136
ISBN 9781446259788
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Your working memory is the information your brain stores for a short period of time, it is your brain's 'post-it note' if you like, and how much information you can remember has a huge influence on how well you do at school, and beyond. By understanding a child's working memory, you will be able to support his/her learning and concentration at school, and their concentration. Better working memory can be particularly useful to children with conditions where poor working memory is thought to be an underlying factor. Such conditions include: - dyslexia - dyscalculia - speech and language difficulties - developmental co-ordination disorders (motor dyspraxia) - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - autistic spectrum disorders. This book explains how to spot problems early and how to work with children to improve their working memory, therefore increasing their chances of success in the classroom. It also explains the theory behind working memory. Underpinned by rigorous research and written in a highly accessible style, this book will appeal to practitioners, parents and students as an essential guide to helping their students fulfil their maximum potential.

Title Working Memory and Severe Learning Difficulties PLE Memory
Author Charles Hulme
Publisher Psychology Press
Release 2014-05-09
Category Psychology
Total Pages 142
ISBN 1317748433
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"Working memory" is a term used to refer to the systems responsible for the temporary storage of information during the performance of cognitive tasks. The efficiency of working memory skills in children may place limitations on the learning and performance of educationally important skills such as reading, language comprehension and arithmetic. Originally published in 1992, this monograph considers the development of working memory skills in children with severe learning difficulties. These children have marked difficulties with a wide range of cognitive tasks. The studies reported show that they also experience profound difficulties in verbal working memory tasks. These memory problems are associated with a failure to rehearse information within an articulatory loop. Training the children to rehearse material is shown to help alleviate these problems. The implications of these studies for understanding normal memory development, and for models of the structure of working memory and its development are discussed. It is argued that the working memory deficits seen in people with severe learning difficulties may contribute to their difficulties on other cognitive tasks.

Title Difficulties in Understanding Mathematics
Author Onyebuchi Onwumere
Publisher
Release 2009
Category
Total Pages
ISBN
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

It is commonly agreed that learning with understanding is more desirable than learning by rote. Understanding is described in terms of the way information is represented and structured in the memory. A mathematical idea or procedure or fact is understood if it is a part of an internal network, and the degree of understanding is determined by the number and the strength of the connections between ideas. When a student learns a piece of mathematical knowledge without making connections with items in his or her existing networks of internal knowledge, he or she is learning without understanding. Learning with understanding has progressively been elevated to one of the most important goals for all learners in all subjects. However, the realisation of this goal has been problematic, especially in the domain of mathematics where there are marked difficulties in learning and understanding. The experience of working with learners who do not do well in mathematics suggests that much of the problem is that learners are required to spend so much time in mathematics lessons engaged in tasks which seek to give them competence in mathematical procedures. This leaves inadequate time for gaining understanding or seeking how the procedures can be applied in life. Much of the satisfaction inherent in learning is that of understanding: making connections, relating the symbols of mathematics to real situations, seeing how things fit together, and articulating the patterns and relationships which are fundamental to our number system and number operations. Other factors include attitudes towards mathematics, working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, curriculum approaches, the classroom climate and assessment. In this study, attitudes, working memory capacity and extent of field dependency will be considered. The work will be underpinned by an information processing model for learning. A mathematics curriculum framework released by the US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) offers a research-based description of what is involved for students to learn mathematics with understanding. The approach is based on?how learners learn, not on?how to teach?, and it should enable mathematics teachers to see mathematics from the standpoint of the learner as he progresses through the various stages of cognitive development. The focus in the present study is to try to find out what aspects of the process of teaching and learning seem to be important in enabling students to grow, develop and achieve. The attention here is on the learner and the nature of the learning process. What is known about learning and memory is reviewed while the literature on specific areas of difficulty in learning mathematics is summarised. Some likely explanations for these difficulties are discussed. Attitudes and how they are measured are then discussed and there is a brief section of learner characteristics, with special emphasis on field dependency as this characteristic seems to be of importance in learning mathematics. The study is set in schools in Nigeria and England but the aim is not to make comparisons. Several types of measurement are made with students: working memory capacity and extent of field dependency are measured using well-established tests (digit span backward test and the hidden figure test). Performance in mathematics is obtained from tests and examinations used in the various schools, standardised as appropriate. Surveys and interviews are also used to probe perceptions, attitudes and aspects of difficulties. Throughout, large samples were employed in the data collection with the overall aim of obtaining a clear picture about the nature and the influence of attitudes, working memory capacity and extent of field dependency in relation to learning, and to see how this was related to mathematics achievement as measured by formal examination. The study starts by focussing on gaining an overview of the nature of the problems and relating these to student perception and attitudes as well as working memory capacity. At that stage, the focus moves more towards extent of field dependency, seen as one way by which the fixed and limited working memory capacity can be used more efficiently. Data analysis was in form of comparison and correlation although there are also much descriptive data. Some very clear patterns and trends were observable. Students are consistently positive towards the more cognitive elements of attitude to mathematics (mathematics is important; lessons are essential). However, they are more negative towards the more affective elements like enjoyment, satisfaction and interest. Thus, they are very realistic about the value of mathematics but find their experiences of learning it much more daunting. Attitudes towards the learning of mathematics change with age. As students grow older, the belief that mathematics is interesting and relevant to them is weakened, although many still think positively about the importance of mathematics. Loss of interest in mathematics may well be related to an inability to grasp what is required and the oft-stated problem that it is difficult trying to take in too much information and selecting what is important. These and other features probably relate to working memory overload, with field dependency skills area being important. The study identified clearly the topics which were perceived as most difficult at various ages. These topics involved ideas and concepts where many things had to be handled cognitively at the same time, thus placing high demands on the limited working memory capacity. As expected, working memory capacity and mathematics achievement relate strongly while extent of field dependency also relates strongly to performance. Performance in mathematics is best for those who are more field-independent. It was found that extent of field dependency grew with age. Thus, as students grow older (at least between 12 and about 17), they tend to become more field-independent. It was also found that girls tend to be more field-independent than boys, perhaps reflecting maturity or their greater commitment and attention to details to undertake their work with care during the years of adolescence. The outcomes of the findings are interpreted in terms of an information processing model. It is argued that curriculum design, teaching approaches and assessment which are consistent with the known limitations of the working memory must be considered during the learning process. There is also discussion of the importance of learning for understanding and the problem of seeking to achieve this while gaining mastery in procedural skills in the light of limited working memory capacity. It is also argued that positive attitudes towards the learning in mathematics must not only be related to the problem of limited working memory capacity but also to ways to develop increased field independence as well as seeing mathematics as a subject to be understood and capable of being applied usefully.

Title Working Memory and Clinical Developmental Disorders
Author Tracy Packiam Alloway
Publisher Routledge
Release 2018-03-19
Category Psychology
Total Pages 218
ISBN 1315302055
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This comprehensive volume brings together international experts involved in applying and developing understanding of Working Memory in the context of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, neurocognitive disorders, and depressive disorders. Each chapter provides a description of the disorder and investigates the Working Memory and related Executive Function deficits. It goes on to provide a neurological profile, before exploring the impact of the disorder in daily functions, the current debates related to this disorder, and the potential effects of medication and intervention. Through combining coverage of theoretical understanding, methods of assessment, and different evidence-based intervention programs, the book supports clinical assessment and management of poor Working Memory. It is essential reading for students in neurodevelopmental disorders, atypical development and developmental psychopathology as well as allied health professionals, clinicians and those working with children in education and healthcare settings.

Working Memory in Development by Valérie Camos

Title Working Memory in Development
Author Valérie Camos
Publisher Routledge
Release 2018-03-05
Category Psychology
Total Pages 216
ISBN 1317338359
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Working memory is the system responsible for the temporary maintenance and processing of information involved in most cognitive activities, and its study is essential to the understanding of cognitive development. Working Memory in Development provides an integrative and thorough account of how working memory develops and how this development underpins childhood cognitive development. Tracing back theories of cognitive development from Piaget's most influential theory to neo-Piagetian approaches and theories pertaining to the information-processing tradition, Camos and Barrouillet show in Part I how the conception of a working memory became critical to understanding cognitive development. Part II provides an overview of the main approaches to working memory and reviews how working memory itself develops across infancy and childhood. In the final Part III, the authors explain their own theory, the Time-Based Resource-Sharing (TBRS) model, and discuss how this accounts for the development of working memory as well providing an adequate frame to understanding the role of working memory in cognitive development. Working Memory in Development effectively addresses central and debated questions related to working memory and is essential reading for students and researchers in developmental, cognitive, and educational psychology.

Title The Role of Working Memory and Executive Function in Communication under Adverse Conditions
Author Mary Rudner
Publisher Frontiers Media SA
Release 2016-06-20
Category
Total Pages
ISBN 2889198618
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Communication is vital for social participation. However, communication often takes place under suboptimal conditions. This makes communication harder and less reliable, leading at worst to social isolation. In order to promote participation, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying communication in different situations. Human communication is often speech based, either oral or written, but may also involve gesture, either accompanying speech or in the form of sign language. For communication to be achieved, a signal generated by one person has to be perceived by another person, attended to, comprehended and responded to. This process may be hindered by adverse conditions including factors that may be internal to the sender (e.g. incomplete or idiosyncratic language production), occur during transmission (e.g. background noise or signal processing) or be internal to the receiver (e.g. poor grasp of the language or sensory impairment). The extent to which these factors interact to generate adverse conditions may differ across the lifespan. Recent work has shown that successful speech communication under adverse conditions is associated with good cognitive capacity including efficient working memory and executive abilities such as updating and inhibition. Further, frontoparietal networks associated with working memory and executive function have been shown to be activated to a greater degree when it is harder to achieve speech comprehension. To date, less work has focused on sign language communication under adverse conditions or the role of gestures accompanying speech communication under adverse conditions. It has been proposed that the role of working memory in communication under such conditions is to keep fragments of an incomplete signal in mind, updating them as appropriate and inhibiting irrelevant information, until an adequate match can be achieved with lexical and semantic representations held in long term memory. Recent models of working memory highlight an episodic buffer whose role is the multimodal integration of information from the senses and long term memory. It is likely that the episodic buffer plays a key role in communication under adverse conditions. The aim of this research topic is to draw together multiple perspectives on communication under adverse conditions including empirical and theoretical approaches. This will facilitate a scientific exchange among individual scientists and groups studying different aspects of communication under adverse conditions and/or the role of cognition in communication. As such, this topic belongs firmly within the field of Cognitive Hearing Science. Exchange of ideas among scientists with different perspectives on these issues will allow researchers to identify and highlight the way in which different internal and external factors interact to make communication in different modalities more or less successful across the lifespan. Such exchange is the forerunner of broader dissemination of results which ultimately, may make it possible to take measures to reduce adverse conditions, thus facilitating communication. Such measures might be implemented in relation to the built environment, the design of hearing aids and public awareness.

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